Solar PV - Solar photovoltaic cells - Electrical input

Friday, August 24, 2018

Solar PV - Solar photovoltaic cells

Solar PV

Solar PV(Photovoltaic):- cells  which convert sun energy into electrical energy. A process in which solar cell generate voltage and electric current through sun light is called photovoltaic effect. These cells are wired together to form a module also known as Photovoltaic  solar panel. A single Photovoltaic  device is called cell. A single photovoltaic cell produce 1 or 2 watts of power to get better power output they are connected in chains to form larger unit which is called panel or module. Module can be used as singly or  more than two can be connected to form arrays. arrays is then connected to the electrical grid. PV cells come in many sizes and shapes. Solar cell has very fine thickness. Photovoltaic  arrays are just one part of a PV system. it involves  rising  arrangement that point modules  toward the sun, along with the components that take the DC  generate by arrays and convert it to the alternating current.

 PV cells can be made from various semi-conductor materials , The most commonly used material  is silicon.

Types of solar panels :-

  • Polycrystalline Solar Panels (p-Si)
  • Monocrystalline Solar Panels (Mono-SI)
  • Thin-Film: Amorphous Silicon Solar Panels (A-SI)
  • Copper Indium Gallium Selenide (CIGS)
  • Biohybrid Solar Cell
  • Cadmium Telluride Solar Cell (CdTe)
  • Concentrated PV Cell (CVP)

       PV(Photovoltaic) systems can be categorized by various parts:-
1.        Stand alone systems
2.       grid-connected Photovoltaic system
3.       Rack mounted Photovoltaic system
4.       fixed-tilt Photovoltaic  systems
5.       rooftop Photovoltaic  systems
6.       ground-mounted systems Photovoltaic  

 Largest photovoltaic power station in the world :-

               Capacity                         MW
Tengger Desert Solar Park
Kurnool Ultra Mega Solar Park 
Datong Solar Power Top Runner Base
Longyangxia Dam Solar Park
Rewa Ultra Mega Solar
Bhadla Solar Park
Kamuthi Solar Power Project
Pavagada Solar Park
Solar Star (I and II)
             United States
Topaz Solar Farm  
             United States

Advantages of solar PV :-
1.       Environment friendly
2.       Solar energy can be made available almost anywhere
3.       Residential solar modules  are easy to install on rooftops or on the ground
4.       PV modules have no mechanically moving parts except sun tracking mechanically based and also Low Maintenance Costs
5.       Solar panels cost is fastly reducing
6.       Reduce electricity bills

Disadvantages of solar PV:-
1.    Low  efficiency  level
2.    It needs additional component to convert dc to ac
3.    On continuous electric supply on grid connection it require inverter as well as batteries, which increasing investment cost of PV modules.
4.    Solar energy depends upon weather condition
5.    Need a lot of space


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