Hydro Power - Hydroelectric energy advantages and disadvantages - Electrical input

Tuesday, August 14, 2018

Hydro Power - Hydroelectric energy advantages and disadvantages

                                                                 Hydro Power





Hydro power or hydroelectric energy is a form of renewable energy sources in hydro power  water energy converted into electrical energy. Water is stored in dam called reservoir, water delivered through penstock to the turbine which is connected  to generator through shaft.

Some major components used in hydro power plant such as Reservoir, penstock, spill way, draft tube, generator, prime mover, surge tank .


Conventional hydroelectric Dam


Types of hydro power plant:-

1.Conventional hydroelectric
2.Small hydro
3.Micro hydro
4.Pumped storage hydroelectricity
5.Run of the river electricity


 1.Conventional hydroelectric :- in this water is stored in the dam stored water called reservoir  water passes through penstock to the turbine.

2. Small hydro:small scale hydroelectric plant which has generating capacity 1 to 20 magawatts 

3. Micro hydro:- a type of hydro electric power plant which has generating capacity 5kw to 100kw to isolated small industries, villages and homes.

4. Pumped storage hydroelectricity:- in this type of hydro plant when low demand period water pumped uphill into reservoirs. This water is released when generation demand is high.

5. Run of the river electricity :- in run of the river electricity no water storage is provided at all or has limited amount water storage.  storage reservoir called  pondagea run of river plant water divert upstream, through a pipe . Downstream water passes through a turbine to generate power.

Three Gorges Dam in china is the world's largest hydroelectric  power plant by installed capacity (22,500 MW).
Turbines :- 
 32 × 700 MW
 2 × 50 MW Francis-type

           Advantages of hydro power plant :-

Source of Clean Energy :- hydro energy is a eco friendly and a clean and green alternative source of energy.it will not emit any kind of toxin and other harmful gases which pollute the environment.

Renewablility :hydro energy is a one of the renewable energy source that can not be depleted . spontaneouslywater evaporates from the surface of the earth which will form clouds and  falls back on the surface of the earth that means it will not have to run out of supply.

Requires Low Operating Cost:hydro electric plant required less maintenance  and operation cost, and also required minimal replacement of parts.

Flexibility:-  hydro electric plant fit to meet any fluctuation in demand. In hydro power plant power generate and save according to demand. But in case of other renewable resources like wind and solar, power generation depend upon weather condition.

Safety :- as compare to other nuclear energy and fossil fuel  hydroelectric energy is much safer . in this no fuel and nuclear material involved.

Disadvantages of hydro power plant :-

1.   High initial cost :-    initial cost of hydro power plant is very high


2.   May Cause Droughts :- during construction of  hydroelectric power plants is the occurrence of local droughts.

3.   Floods in lower areas :- local population who lives in lower areas become the victim of  strong current water release from the dam, which can affect the livelihood of people who lives in these areas.

4.   Geological damage:- building large hydroelectric dam cause of geological damage. Some hydroelectric dams triggered a number of earth quakes, and also depressed earth surface from its location.



















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